Topic outline


    The Fraunhofer ISE agrivoltaic research plant at Lake Constance: 

    The solar modules, with an output of 195 kilowatts, generate electricity on five-metre-high steel structures, so tractors and combined harvesters can easily fit underneath. Over the past three years, farmers have used the fields to grow winter wheat, potatoes, celery, grass and clover leys under the steel structure. Read more here.

    The Seminar on Energy and Climate Change will let you deep on the intrinsic relationship between climate change and the energy system. Technological, economic and environmental aspects will be addressed, within the mitigation goal. At the end of the course, students will be able to perform a critical and robust analysis on:
    a. the impact of energy options on the climate change problem, taking the perspective of systems analysis and in the medium to long term;
    b. the importance of clean energy production to economic competitiveness, within the regulatory framework to promote carbon neutrality;  
    c. how to develop a prospecting plan for the success of an economic activity within a carbon neutral economy.

  • Meeting with Students

    [4 Mar 2022] Session reserved for students meeting with the Scientific Committee on practical aspects of the PhD Program, and choice of tutors.

  • Introduction

    [11 Mar 2022] Introduction to the concept of energy system, and how it relates with climate change. Aim and purpose of the course. Evaluation. J. Seixas, FCT-NOVA

  • Global Energy System

    [18 mar 2022] Current state of the global energy system; energy access; concepts of energy intensity.  S. Simoes, FCT NOVA & LNEG

  • Global CO2 Emissions Budget

    [25 march 2022] Global balance of CO2 emissions associated with energy and industrial processes. Estimates of the Global Carbon Budget ( and its relationship to the global energy system and changes in land use. Future scenarios for greenhouse gas emissions: RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways). Global emissions based on consumption vs. production. (Sofia Simoes, NOVA-FCT)

  • Renewables

    [02 april 2022]  Renewables: Economic, environmental and energy security of endogenous vs. imported resources. Renewable technologies. Sustainability issues related with renewables. Land & water use, critical raw materials. Discussion: Where to place 7GW of solar PV in Portugal till 2030?S. Simoes, FCT NOVA & LNEG

  • Energy topics

    [08 april 2022]  (Recap) some basic energy concepts: Primary/final energy; energy efficiency; Energy services; Energy carriers; Final energy supply cost curves; learning curves of energy technologies; Energy security & endogenous vs. imported resources. Sustainability issues related with renewables - Land & water use, materials use. GHG mitigation. Discussion: Where to place 7GW of solar PV in Portugal till 2030? . (Sofia Simoes, NOVA & LNEG)

  • Drawdown - Climate Solutions for a New Decade

    [22 April 2021] Drawdown - Climate Solutions for a New Decade João Pedro Gouveia, (CENSE-FCT NOVA)

  • Hydrogen

    [30 april 2022] Hydrogen technologies for energy supply and consumption, and its role for carbon neutral energy systems. Sofia Simoes on behalf of Patrícia Fortes (CENSE, FCT NOVA)

  • Carbon Pricing

    [6 may 2022] Carbon Pricing: Rationale and state of the artEmission trading and carbon taxes. European Union climate mitigation regulatory framework 

  • Discussion

    Discussion: A vision towards sustainable and carbon neutral energy system: is it possible for everyone? 
    13th May 16h30-18h

    All students must read the 4 papers below carefully, to inform your vision (positive prospects vs. bottlenecks and barriers) and do the homework to be well prepared (ideas + arguments + some statistics as necessary to support your perspective) to contribute to the debate. Each student may choose its own perspective, for example developing country or very rich country, global company or small company, NGO or other organization, or any other. The students should organize themselves in groups of 3 representing the same perspective, to prepare jointly the positions in the debate. SUGGESTION: Keep the same groups of the assignment to the extent possible.

    There is the need to have two volunteers (one male + one female) to make a short presentation (10 min at the maximum total) based on the paper 'Energy Vision (van Vuuren, 2012)' to organize key challenges to address during the debate (among others).  SEND BY MAIL TO S. Simões by tuesday 10th may:

     - who are the 2 volunteers

     - groups and roles you are assuming - if there is not enough diversity in roles, roles will be assigned to you

    READ (available in here in the MOODLE):

    •A roadmap for rapid decarbonization
    •Net-zero emissions energy systems
    •Towards demand-side solutions for mitigating climate change
    •An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability - interconnected challenges and solutions

    A) In groups of 3 write an essay (pdf) of 5 pages maximum, (1) taking the perspective of a specific stakeholder (i.e. developing country or very rich country, global company or small company, NGO or other organization, or any other); (2) elaborating at least on the 4 previous questions, and (3) commenting on the key question (see the title). Send to S. Simoes by e-mail by May 13th 
    B) Find a group that can accommodate you  but please make sure you can contribute to preparations actively - I will maybe contact you separately at a later time and ask you some question on this

    16h00-16h30 Wrap up and short intro by S. Simoes

    16h30 (10 min): Initial presentation by the two volunteers.

    16h40 (20 min): Tour de table, each group of students presents who they represent in the debate (i.e. developing country or very rich country, global company or small company, NGO or other organization, or any other), and makes a single statement (1-2 phrases) about its expectation regarding the key question of the debate (see the title). Each group should previously decide who will address the first intervention. 

    17h00 (45 min): Debate will evolve around the following guiding questions: (1) what are the (different and diverse) opportunities to achieve a sustainable and neutral carbon energy system to provide the energy services for the economy and consumers? (2) what barriers exist for such transformation? (3) what are the key factors to invest in? (4) what aspects should be avoided? [you may cover all aspects, from technology to financing, education or policy instruments, among others]. Each group’s member need to raise hand to call for intervention! 

    17h45 (15 min): Final remarks from each group about the achievement regarding the debate's question (1-2 phrases). Each group should previously decide who will address the final intervention. 

    18h00 Close

  • Energy and GHG statistics

    [21 may] Statistics on energy and greenhouse gas emissions: understanding energy balances, converting energy units; creation of indicators and interpretation.